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Heterologous boost with mRNA vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 Delta/Omicron variants following an inactivated whole-virus vaccine

The coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has mutated quickly and caused significant global damage. This study characterizes two mRNA vaccines ZSVG-02 (Delta) and ZSVG-02-O (Omicron BA.1), and associating heterologous prime-boost strategy following the prime of a most widely administrated inactivated whole-virus vaccine (BBIBP-CorV). The ZSVG-02-O induces neutralizing antibodies that effectively cross-react with Omicron subvariants following an order of BA.1>BA.2>BA.4/5. In native animals, ZSVG-02 or ZSVG-02-O induce humoral responses skewed to the vaccine's targeting strains, but cellular immune responses cross-react to all variants of concern (VOCs) tested. Following heterologous prime-boost regimes, animals present comparable neutralizing antibody levels and superior protection across all VOCs. Single-boost only generated ancestral and omicron dual-responsive antibodies, probably by "recall" and "reshape" the prime immunity. New Omicron-specific antibody populations, however, appeared only following the second boost with ZSVG-02-O. Overall, our results support a heterologous boost with ZSVG-02-O, providing the best protection against current VOCs in inactivated virus vaccine-primed populations.

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