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Prospects of NIR fluorescent nanosensors for green detection of SARS-CoV-2

The pandemic of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is continuously causing hazards for the world. Effective detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can relieve the impact, but various toxic chemicals are also released into the environment. Fluorescence sensors offer a facile analytical strategy. During fluorescence sensing, biological samples such as tissues and body fluids have autofluorescence, giving false-positive/negative results because of the interferences. Fluorescence near-infrared (NIR) nanosensors can be designed from low-toxic materials with insignificant background signals. Although this research is still in its infancy, further developments in this field have the potential for sustainable detection of SARS-CoV-2. Herein, we summarize the reported NIR fluorescent nanosensors with the potential to detect SARS-CoV-2. The green synthesis of NIR fluorescent nanomaterials, environmentally compatible sensing strategies, and possible methods to reduce the testing frequencies are discussed. Further optimization strategies for developing NIR fluorescent nanosensors to facilitate greener diagnostics of SARS-CoV-2 for pandemic control are proposed.

Keywords: 5 G, the fifth generation technology standard for broadband cellular networks; ACE2, Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2; AIE, aggregation-induced emission; AIE810NP, an aggregation-induced emission (AIE) nanoparticle (λem = 810 nm); AIEgens, AIE luminogens; ASOs, antisense oligonucleotides; AuNP, Gold nanoparticle; CF647, a cyanine-based far-red fluorescent dye; COVID-19, The pandemic of the novel coronavirus disease 2019; CP-MNB, capture probe-conjugated magnetic bead particle; CdS, core/shell lead sulfide/cadmium sulfide; CoPhMoRe, corona phase molecular recognition; Cy7Cl, a cationic cyanine dye; DCNPs, Down-conversion nanoparticles; DPV, Differential pulse voltammetry; DSNP, down shifting nanoparticles; DSNP@MY-1057-GPC-3, active targeting antibody glypican-3 (GPC-3) was conjugated with DSNP@MY-1057; E, envelope; EB-NS, prepared by the layered pigment CaCuSi4O10 (Egyptian Blue, EB) via ball milling and facile tip sonication into NIR fluorescent nanosheets; ENMs, electrospun nanofibrous membranes; Environmental-friendly; FLU, an infectious disease caused by influenza viruses; FRET, fluorescence resonance energy transfer; Green synthesis; HA1, hemagglutinin subunit.; HA1., hemagglutinin subunit; HAS, serum albumin; HCC, hepatocellular carcinoma; IONPs, iron oxide nanoparticles.; IONPs., iron oxide nanoparticles; IgG A, IgG aggregation; IgG, immunoglobulin G; IgM, immunoglobulin M; LED, light emitting diode; LICOR, IRDye-800CW; Low-toxic; M, membrane; MCU, microcontroller unit; MERS, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus; N protein, nucleocapsid protein; N, nucleocapsid; NIR; NIR, Near-Infrared; NIR775, an H2S-inert fluorophore; Nanosensor; P, FITC-labelled GzmB substrate peptides; PBS, Phosphate-buffered saline; PCR, Polymerase Chain Reaction; PEG, branched by Polyethylene glycol; PEG1000 PE, 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[methoxy(polyethylene glycol)− 1000]; PEG2000 PE, (1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[methoxy(polyethylene glycol)− 2000);; POC, point-of-care; PS, polystyrene; Pb-Ag2S ODs, lead doped Ag2S quantum dots; QDs, quantum dots; QY, quantum yield; R, R represents a common recognition element for the target; RCA, rolling circle amplification; RNA, ribonucleic acid; S RBD, SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain; S protein, spike protein; S, spike; SAM, self-assembled monolayer; SARS-CoV-2; SARS-CoV-2, Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus; SPNs, semiconducting polymer nanoparticles.; SPNs., semiconducting polymer nanoparticles; SWCNTs, single-walled carbon nanotubes; Si-RP, silica-reporter probe; VIS, visible; VTM, viral transport medium; pGOLD, plasmonic gold.


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