Recent advancements in the measurement of pathogenic airborne viruses
Air-transmissible pathogenic viruses, such as influenza viruses and coronaviruses, are some of the most fatal strains and spread rapidly by air, necessitating quick and stable measurements from sample air volumes to prevent further spread of diseases and to take appropriate steps rapidly. Measurements of airborne viruses generally require their collection into liquids or onto solid surfaces, with subsequent hydrosolization and then analysis using the growth method, nucleic-acid-based techniques, or immunoassays. Measurements can also be performed in real time without sampling, where species-specific determination is generally disabled. In this review, we introduce some recent advancements in the measurement of pathogenic airborne viruses. Air sampling and measurement technologies for viral aerosols are reviewed, with special focus on the effects of air sampling on damage to the sampled viruses and their measurements. Measurement of pathogenic airborne viruses is an interdisciplinary research area that requires understanding of both aerosol technology and biotechnology to effectively address the issues. Hence, this review is expected to provide some useful guidelines regarding appropriate air sampling and virus detection methods for particular applications.