Haemophilus influenzae Meningitis Direct Diagnosis by Metagenomic Next-Generation Sequencing: A Case Report
Current routine real-time PCR methods used for the point-of-care diagnosis of infectious meningitis do not allow for one-shot genotyping of the pathogen, as in the case of deadly Haemophilus influenzae meningitis. Real-time PCR diagnosed H. influenzae meningitis in a 22-year-old male patient, during his hospitalisation following a more than six-metre fall. Using an Oxford Nanopore Technologies real-time sequencing run in parallel to real-time PCR, we detected the H. influenzae genome directly from the cerebrospinal fluid sample in six hours. Furthermore, BLAST analysis of the sequence encoding for a partial DUF417 domain-containing protein diagnosed a non-b serotype, non-typeable H.influenzae belonging to lineage H. influenzae 22.1-21. The Oxford Nanopore metagenomic next-generation sequencing approach could be considered for the point-of-care diagnosis of infectious meningitis, by direct identification of pathogenic genomes and their genotypes/serotypes.