Serological Evidence of Influenza D Virus Circulation Among Cattle and Small Ruminants in France
Influenza D virus (IDV) has first been identified in 2011 in the USA and was shown to mainly circulate in cattle. While IDV is associated with mild respiratory signs, its prevalence is still unknown. In the present study we show that IDV has been circulating throughout France in cattle and small ruminants, with 47.2% and 1.5% seropositivity, respectively. The high prevalence and moderate pathogenicity of IDV in cattle suggest that it may play an initiating role in the bovine respiratory disease complex.